Why I Won't Vax
Dietary emulsifiers consumption alters anxiety-like and social-related behaviors in mice in a sex-dependent manner
Holder MK, Peters NV, Whylings J, Fields CT, Gewirtz AT, Chassaing B, de Vries GJ. Dietary emulsifiers consumption alters anxiety-like and social-related behaviors in mice in a sex-dependent manner. Sci Rep. 2019 Jan 17;9(1):172. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36890-3. PMID: 30655577; PMCID: PMC6336787.
Dietary emulsifiers carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80) alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota and induce chronic low-grade inflammation, ultimately leading to metabolic dysregulations in mice. Importantly, emulsifier treatment altered anxiety-like behaviors in males and reduced social behavior in females. It also changed expression of neuropeptides implicated in the modulation of feeding as well as social and anxiety-related behaviors.
Polysorbate 80 increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat thymocytes
Tatsuishi T, Oyama Y, Iwase K, Yamaguchi JY, Kobayashi M, Nishimura Y, Kanada A, Hirama S. Polysorbate 80 increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat thymocytes. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2004.07.020. PMID: 15590117.
Polysorbate 80 at clinically-relevant concentrations increases the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide under the in vitro condition. Result suggests that polysorbate 80 may increase the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress.
Dual effects of Tween 80 on protein stability
Wang W, Wang YJ, Wang DQ. Dual effects of Tween 80 on protein stability. Int J Pharm. 2008 Jan 22;347(1-2):31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.06.042. Epub 2007 Jul 3. PMID: 17692480.
Tween 80 increased the rate of oxidation in general but also altered the temperature-dependency of IL-2 mutein oxidation.
Polysorbate 80-induced leaky gut impairs skeletal muscle metabolism in mice
Nishimura S, Aoi W, Kodani H, Kobayashi Y, Wada S, Kuwahata M, Higashi A.
results suggest that daily PS80 intake induces intestinal permeability, leading to glucose intolerance and mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscle.
Consumption of Select Dietary Emulsifiers Exacerbates the Development of Spontaneous Intestinal Adenoma
Viennois E, Chassaing B. Consumption of Select Dietary Emulsifiers Exacerbates the Development of Spontaneous Intestinal Adenoma. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 5;22(5):2602. doi: 10.3390/ijms22052602. PMID: 33807577; PMCID: PMC7961571.
Overall, our findings further support the hypothesis that emulsifier consumption may be a new modifiable risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and that alterations in host-microbiota interactions can favor gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in individuals with a genetical predisposition to such disorders.
Polysorbate-80 modified neurotoxin nanoparticle with its transport and cytotoxicity against blood-brain barrier
Zhao YM, Xia AX, Wei YH, Ruan YP, Li FZ. [Polysorbate-80 modified neurotoxin nanoparticle with its transport and cytotoxicity against blood-brain barrier]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Oct;45(10):1312-6. Chinese. PMID: 21348312.
polysorbate-80 modified neurotoxin nanoparticles can transport across the BBB
Dietary emulsifier polysorbate-80-induced small-intestinal vulnerability to indomethacin-induced lesions via dysbiosis
Furuhashi H, Higashiyama M, Okada Y, Kurihara C, Wada A, Horiuchi K, Hanawa Y, Mizoguchi A, Nishii S, Inaba K, Sugihara N, Watanabe C, Komoto S, Tomita K, Miura S, Hokari R.
Polysorbate-80 enhances the vulnerability of the small intestine to indomethacin-induced injury by inducing ileal dysbiosis. Direct enhancement of the motility of specific flagellated microbiota by P80 might be related to dysbiosis and intestinal injury.
Dietary Emulsifier-Induced Low-Grade Inflammation Promotes Colon Carcinogenesis
Viennois E, Merlin D, Gewirtz AT, Chassaing B. Dietary Emulsifier-Induced Low-Grade Inflammation Promotes Colon Carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2017 Jan 1;77(1):27-40. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1359. Epub 2016 Nov 7. PMID: 27821485; PMCID: PMC5214513.
Here, we demonstrate in a preclinical model of colitis-induced colorectal cancer that regular consumption of dietary emulsifiers, carboxymethylcellulose or polysorbate-80, exacerbated tumor development. Enhanced tumor development was associated with an altered microbiota metagenome characterized by elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide and flagellin
Preparation and therapeutic efficacy of polysorbate-80-coated amphotericin B/PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles
Ren T, Xu N, Cao C, Yuan W, Yu X, Chen J, Ren J. Preparation and therapeutic efficacy of polysorbate-80-coated amphotericin B/PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2009;20(10):1369-80. doi: 10.1163/092050609X12457418779185. PMID: 19622277.
The prepared nanoparticles were spherical with homogeneous distribution. Drug concentration in mice brain was greatly enhanced, which indicated that the coated nanoparticles could get across the BBB
Macromolecules in polysorbate 80 for injection: an important cause of anaphylactoid reactions
Li Y, Duan J, Xia H, Li Y, Shu B, Duan W.
macromolecular impurities may cause strong anaphylactoid reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylactoid (PCA) reactions, pulmonary capillary permeability, vasodilation, and severe hemolysis
Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome
Chassaing B, Koren O, Goodrich JK, Poole AC, Srinivasan S, Ley RE, Gewirtz AT.
relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential.